Unit processes are the fundamental processes or chemical changes involved in any chemical process. It gives necessary information about the:

1) The reaction temperature and process

2) The extent of chemical process

3) Reaction nature of the reaction, whether endothermic or exothermic

4) Catalyst type.


It is a reaction that occurs when a halogen groups in an organic or inorganic compound by a halogen for making various halogen derivatives. Although chlorine derivatives have many applications, some fluorine and bromine derivatives are equally significant. Some of the chlorinating agents are chlorine, hydrochloric acid, phosgene, and hypochlorite. It is used to produce dyes, flame retardants.

Sulfonation and Sulfation:

Sulfonation is where the sulfonic acid group replaces the H atom or corresponding salt like sulfonyl halide.

Sulfation is the process where the sulfate -OSO₂OH or -SO₄- replaces H-atom. These processes play a role in the production of dyes, color intensifiers, medicines, pigments, pesticides, pigments.


It is the process used in the production of many chemicals. Some essential products obtained from oxidation are ketones, benzyl alcohol, ethylene oxide, aldehydes, vanillin, benzoic acid, maleic acid.


Nitration is the process where nitro groups are added into reacting molecules using nitrating agents like nitric acid or a mixing nitric acid with sulphuric acid in batches or continuous process. The nitration process is used widely in the manufacture of explosives, dyes, solvents, pharmaceuticals. R&D companies like Lizard Labs USA are experts in this type of chemical process.


It is a process wherein a compound is broken down after reacting with water. It is associated with changes in the acidity of a solution. It is widely applied in the oils and fats industry to manufacture soaps. 


It is a process where monomer molecules react to form polymer chains or 3-d chains. It finds applications in manufacturing synthetic fiber, rubber, paint, petroleum products, and polymer. Some products obtained from this process are PVC, nylon, acrylic fiber, urea, resin products, etc.


It has wide uses in the food and beverage industry for preservations of foods like pickles, yogurt, and production of beer and wine. Products like acetic acid, ethanol, and citric acid, glycerol, antibiotics, riboflavin are made. Ethyl alcohol produced after sugar fermentation is an essential component of liquid biofuel.


It involves the breaking down of complex particles like proteins, lipids, bones, nucleic acids. The process used in photography mainly. It also plays a role in forensic sciences.


It is the process of forming an ester and water by combining alcohol and organic acid. Sulphuric acid is the catalyst used. It is useful in the preparation of cosmetics, pesticides, perfumes, paint solvents, pharmaceuticals, adhesives, and biodiesel.


It is a process where complex molecules are broken down into simpler substances by passing electric current. Electroplating and electrochemical machining are two processes mainly used in the manufacturing industry. The former has purposes as in-vehicle bodies or coins. The latter has uses in sharpening hard metal surfaces like tools.

There are chemicals present in the soap that you use to the dress that you wear. Without the underlying processes, it is not possible to manufacture any of the items we use in our daily life. Unit processes, along with unit operations, form the basis of any significant chemical processes used in the chemical industry.


Every person in the dynamic world, who wishes to grow and establish an empire, needs to take the route of social media marketing. Social media is a platform that allows people to communicate with the public about their work, and create and deliver content about their business. The Data that is generated is the lifeblood of social media.

Social media marketing managers are the ones who use the platform to create and run social media pages, develop content to reach their potential customers, and attract them more towards the brand. This helps them grow business and reach a mass population just with the click of the mouse. They set or follow new trends, Create interactive content, and attract and try to maintain the interest of their customers in different ways.

There is a constant war amongst different brands on several social media platforms. The challenge is to deliver a message that should have better content, a mass reach, more attractive to the eyes, and the customers feel connected to it. This job is done by the social media marketing manager and their teams, where they collectively share ideas, work upon it, and emerge out the magic.

Roles of a Social Media Marketing Manager:

  1. Plan & Strategize:

The first towards building a brand image is to strategize and find answers to questions like: Why will they buy? What is so unique in the product? What is the value addition? The team has to recognize the need of the customers and then aim to fulfill them backing up with facts, figures, and informational data.

  1. Identify Target Market:

Every product has a separate customer base, which the social media manager has to hunt and target. This is done via in-depth market study, taking a survey, and examining the buying habits of people. Once you know the target market, the message that you wish to deliver, gets concentric towards them as keeping the market focus tight, helps the company grow bigger and better.

  1. Set Objectives:

The manager needs to realize his objective and cut them down into day-to-day goals for his team to act upon it and be motivated towards achieving them. Until you set goals, the examination of results will not be possible.

  1. Visual Design & Web Development Strategy:

Customers connect with the brand with what they see. A visual content leaves a much lasting effect than any other. For visual branding –

  • Consistency is important
  • Develop a brand image
  • Post Regularly
  • Deliver the right message across.
  1. Content Development:

Managers should strategize their content towards selling their brand. They make people aware of the unique thing of the company and provide every small detail about it, which is permissible. Customer relationships are built better if the company maintains good transparency about its workings as this helps them make purchasing decisions.

A social media manager also has to strategize about its company’s promotion and engagement with the customer and ensure the best possible ROI. A social media manager is the face of the company, and the one can take the company to new heights if he has the correct approach to the right plan.

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